KEJAHATAN TERORGANISASI LINTAS-NEGARA DI EROPA PASCABREXIT, 2016–2022
This article elaborates transnational organized crime (TOC) in Europe after the UK's exit from membership in the European Union (EU) or better known as British Exit (Brexit). Focusing on the highlights from 2016 to 2022, the elaboration is limited to explanations regarding the definitions, policies, and forms of TOC. Presenting a descriptive-qualitative study, the author uses secondary data in the form of various credible documents mainly issued by the EU, EUROPOL (especially the European Union Serious and Organized Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) document) in 2017 and 2021, as well as data from the UNODC. The argument that the writer puts forward is based on the Zabyelina dan Đorđević’s thoughts, namely their assumptions in a liberal institutionalist perspective. In addition, the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto (UNCTOC) assists the author in explaining the cooperation carried out by the EU with other partners to combat the TOC threats. The results of this study indicate that the UNCTOC definition is still being adopted by Europe. The policy shift occurred in the adjustment of the rule of law, particularly between the UK and the EU, as a consequence of Brexit.
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized Crime (9th ed.). Wadsworth.
Caballero-Anthony, M. (2016). An Introduction to Non-Traditional Security Studies: A Transnational Approach. SAGE Publications.
European Commission. (2004). Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security (A. Edwards & P. Gill, Eds.). Routledge.
Viotti, P. R., & Kauppi, M. v. (2013). International Relations and World Politics (5th ed.). Pearson.
Aminah, S. (2016). The Role Of Government To Eradicate Radicalism and Terrorism In Indonesia. Jurnal Kelitbangan Inovasi Dan Pembangunan, 4(1). https://jurnal.balitbangda.lampungprov.go.id/index.php/jip/article/view/11
Davies, G. (2021). Facilitating Cross-Border Criminal Justice Cooperation Between the UK and Ireland After Brexit: ‘Keeping the Lights On’ to Ensure the Safety of the Common Travel Area. The Journal of Criminal Law, 85(2), 77–97.
Đorđević, S. (2009). Understanding Transnational Organized Crime as a Security Threat and Security Theories. Western Balkans Security Observer, 4(13), 39–52.
Hoxhaj, A. (2020, April 2). The UK’s Policy Response to Serious and Organised crime after Brexit. Global Policy Journal. https://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/02/07/2020/uks-policy-response-serious-and-organised-crime-after-brexit
Sulistyorini, R. (2015). Potensi Kereta Api sebagai Angkutan Barang di Provinsi Lampung. Jurnal Kelitbangan Inovasi Dan Pembangunan, 03, 1–15.
Zabyelina, Y. (2009). Transnational Organized Crime in International Relations. Central European Journal of International and Security Studies (CEJISS), 3(1), 12–13.
Beltrami & Company Solicitors and Notaries. (n.d.). Brexit Poses Challenges to Cross-Border Crime Co-operation. Retrieved July 11, 2022, from https://www.beltramiandcompany.co.uk/news/criminal-defence/brexit-cross-border-crime-co-operation
Cotroneo, C. (n.d.). UK-EU anti-trafficking cooperation after Brexit. Retrieved July 11, 2022, from https://www.paccsresearch.org.uk/blog/uk-eu-anti-trafficking-cooperation-after-brexit/
Council of Europe. (2014). White Paper on transnational organised crime. https://edoc.coe.int/en/organised-crime/6837-white-paper-on-transnational-organised-crime.html#
Council of Europe. (2016). COUNCIL OF EUROPE ACTION PLAN ON COMBATING TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME (2016-2020). www.coe.int/cdpc
Council of Europe. (2022). Our member States. Our Member States. https://www.coe.int/en/web/about-us/our-member-states
Czugler, D. (2021, April 29). Cross-border law enforcement after Brexit: partnering in crime.
European Commission. (2019, April). A ‘NO-DEAL’ BREXIT: POLICE AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION. A ‘NO-DEAL’ BREXIT: POLICE AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/factsheet_police_and_judicial_coordination_final.pdf
European Commission. (2021, April 14). the EU Strategy to tackle Organised Crime 2021-2025. https://home-affairs.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2021-04/14042021_eu_strategy_to_tackle_organised_crime_2021-2025_com-2021-170-1_en.pdf
European Commission. (2022). From 6 to 27 members. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/enlargement-policy/6-27-members_en
Hargreaves, I. (2021, January 27). Cross-Border Criminal Cooperation in a Post-Brexit World. https://www.cov.com/en/news-and-insights/insights/2021/01/cross-border-criminal-cooperation-in-a-post-brexit-world
Luyten, K., & Voronova, S. (2020, September). BRIEFING EU policies – Insights: Understanding the EU response to organised crime. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2020/652043/EPRS_BRI(2020)652043_EN.pdf
Sergi, A. (2016, June 6). Brexit could make life easier for organised crime gangs. https://theconversation.com/brexit-could-make-life-easier-for-organised-crime-gangs-60515
Stanyard, J., & Tagziria, L. (2020). Will Brexit see organized crime taking back control? As Brexit is set to be the defining feature of the UK’s economic future, the same may also be true of its criminal economy. https://globalinitiative.net/analysis/organized-crime-brexit/
UK Parliament. (n.d.). Brexit: crime, justice and the law. Retrieved July 11, 2022, from https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/research/eu-referendum/crime-justice-and-the-law/
UNODC. (2011). Estimating Illicit Financial Flows Resulting from Drug Trafficking and Other Transnational Organized Crimes: Research Report. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/Illicit_financial_flows_2011_web.pdf
UNODC. (2021). WILDLIFE AND FOREST CRIME ANALYTIC TOOLKIT REPORT: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . https://www.unodc.org/documents/Wildlife/UK_Toolkit_Report.pdf
UNODC. (2022, March). Transnational organized crime: the globalized illegal economy. https://www.unodc.org/toc/en/crimes/organized-crime.html
Betti, S. (2001). The European Union and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.
House of Commons Northern Ireland Affairs Committee. (2021). Cross-border co-operation on policing, security and criminal justice after Brexit. https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/5650/documents/55754/default/
United Nations. (2004). The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto. https://www.unodc.org/documents/middleeastandnorthafrica/organised-crime/UNITED_NATIONS_CONVENTION_AGAINST_TRANSNATIONAL_ORGANIZED_CRIME_AND_THE_PROTOCOLS_THERETO.pdf
United Nations. (2022). UN Treaty Collection: STATUS AS AT : 07-07-2022 03:15:48 EDT: CHAPTER XVIII PENAL MATTERS: 12. United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. In UN Treaty Collection. United Nations. https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-12&chapter=18&clang=_en
EUROPOL. (2017). The European Union (EU) Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) 2017: Crime in the age of technology. https://www.europol.europa.eu/cms/sites/default/files/documents/report_socta2017_1.pdf
EUROPOL. (2021). European Union Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) 2021: A Corrupting Influence: The Infiltration and Undermining of Europe’s Economy and Society by Organised Crime. https://www.europol.europa.eu/cms/sites/default/files/documents/socta2021_1.pdf
Buku kompilasi makalah (edited book):
Bossong, R., & Rhinard, M. (2018). Terrorism and Transnational Crime in Europe: A Role for Strategy? In S. S. J. Economides (Ed.), EU Security Strategies: Extending the EU System of Security Governance. Routledge.
Hermann, M. G. (2008). Content Analysis. In Qualitative Methods in International Relations: A Pluralist Guide (p. 151). Palgrave MacMillan.
Roman-Urrestarazu, A., Yang, J., Robertson, R., McCallum, A., Gray, C., Martin, M., & Middleton, J. (2019). Brexit threatens the UK’s ability to tackle illicit drugs and organised crime: What needs to happen now? Health Policy, 123(6), 521–525.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shell be assigned to Development Innovation: Jurnal Kelitbangan (JIP) , Balitbangda Provinsi Lampung as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations, the reproduction of any part of this journal, its storeage in databases and its transmission by any form or media. such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc.